Russia’s Online Shopping Habits of Various Countries

Online Shopping Habits in Different Countries, Including Russia

****1. Consumer demand in Russia****


Consumer demand is a very important aspect, and we need to adopt different marketing strategies based on the needs of consumers. Targeted sales of products are crucial. Just as in the aforementioned case, Russia experienced a severe economic crisis with shortages of goods and food, so the United States began to provide peanut butter to attract consumers, which was a successful marketing strategy.

So how to implement marketing strategies in Russia? More and more people are targeting this emerging market, and competition in Russia is becoming increasingly fierce. Why is the Russian market and even the entire Russian-language market so attractive?

In 2016, the total population of Russia was 144 million, with over 85.8 million internet users, a mobile phone penetration rate of 45%, and over 30 million users with online shopping experience, of which 53% were wireless shopping. The number of Facebook users exceeded 11 million. In recent years, Sino-Russian trade has developed rapidly, and it is expected that the Sino-Russian trade volume will reach 200 billion U.S. dollars by 2020, especially with the development of Sino-Russian e-commerce. As the most important country along the “Belt and Road,” Russia is known as the market with the greatest potential for cross-border e-commerce and firmly occupies the top spot in China’s cross-border e-commerce transaction volume.

According to statistics from Alibaba’s global AliExpress platform, as of 2017, the total number of Russian buyers reached more than 22 million, equivalent to one in six Russians shopping on AliExpress. The male-to-female shopping ratio is 1:2. According to the Russian E-Commerce Association, in 2013, the number of orders for Chinese goods purchased by Russians accounted for 40% of the total cross-border online shopping orders in Russia. In 2016, the number of overseas orders for cross-border online shopping in Russia increased to about 245 million, of which 90% were from China, with an average of more than 500,000 packages sent from China to Russia every day.

During the 2016 “Double 11” promotion, the total sales volume of Chinese online retailers in the Russian market increased 25 times. Compared to the 2016 sales, the revenue of Chinese online stores during the 2017 “Double 11” increased fivefold, the total purchase volume increased fourfold, and the number of buyers increased 45 times. Compared to regular days, the number of consumers during this shopping festival was 20 times higher, and the total amount of Chinese retail goods purchased increased 39 times. During the shopping carnival, Russian users bought fewer items from Chinese online stores on average, but spent more money. In comparison to the 2016 “Double 11,” the average invoice amount for the 2017 “Double 11” increased by 23% to 953 rubles. This number is 15 times higher than regular days, but the average number of payments per person decreased by 9% compared to the same period last year. The most popular Chinese products among Russians are women’s clothing, electronic devices, and men’s clothing. Products from Xiaomi and DJI drones have also become popular “internet celebrity products” in Russia through AliExpress.

In addition, wireless headphones, LED car lights, new car air purifiers, stainless steel folding knives, cartoon stickers, mountain bikes, and LED deep-sea fishing flashlights are all very popular products among Russian consumers. For electronic products, the local market updates one to two generations behind China. For example, if we are currently using an iPhone 8, the most popular products in Russia are iPhone 6 and iPhone 6s. This is also the reason why technology products sell well. For clothing products, as Russia is located in the northern hemisphere, winters are especially cold every year, and products that provide warmth, such as down jackets, are also very popular. Russia is vast and has a variety of climates, with a distance of up to 10,000 kilometers from east to west and only one major railway. Therefore, on-time delivery to Russia is challenging. Russia has 11 time zones, which means that the purchasing preferences of Russian users are affected by time zones. People in the Rostov region by the quiet Don River like to buy wireless headphones, LED car lights, and long black false eyelashes. People in the Volgograd region like to buy tempered glass screen protectors for phones, mineral mud masks, and new car air purifiers. People in the Novosibirsk region like to buy stainless steel folding knives, pocket knives for camping or outdoor survival, and folding knives. People in St. Petersburg prefer cartoon stickers and mountain bikes. The largest port city along the Arctic Ocean, Murmansk, likes to buy LED deep-sea fishing flashlights. In addition, we can classify Russian consumer demands by using different keywords.

(1) Classified by season

There is a big temperature difference between the four seasons in Russia, and the seasonality of marketing is very strong. When releasing product information, you can highlight the hot-selling products of the current season in the title keywords. If it is winter, the local temperature will be very cold, so it is important to pay attention to warmth when outdoors. Hats, scarves, and gloves are essential items. Women are particularly fond of buying animal fur coats, so the hot-selling products in winter include hats, gloves, scarves, fingerless gloves, fur long coats, and fur short coats, etc.

(2) Classified by lifestyle

Russians wear different clothes outside and at home. They will definitely change into home clothes at home, put on a bathrobe after taking a shower, and wear thinner and more comfortable pajamas when sleeping. Therefore, hot-selling home clothes include slippers, home clothes, and pajamas, etc.

Russians love sports. Sports are an important part of their lives, and they will often purchase specialized sportswear, sports shoes, and accessories, such as sports, running, and swimming equipment.

Russians (especially young people and children) have a habit of vacationing, and they generally like to go to the beach. Therefore, they will buy many things used on the beach, such as swimsuits, beachwear, and sandals. Russian women love to chase fashion and constantly pay attention to new clothes, shoes, and bags. Some hot-selling, novel, creative, and fashionable products are more popular. Adult Russian women do not like too cute dressing styles, and they prefer the sexy style of Europe. Russian men are relatively tall and there are also many obese people, so they have a special preference for plus-sized clothes. Russian users prefer to see European and American models showing clothes, believing that the clothes will fit better. Russian women generally dress up and wear makeup, so there is a high demand for beauty products. However, they prefer to buy branded cosmetics, as well as accessories and headwear.

(3) Categorized according to occasion

Many government and corporate employees wear suits, and suits are also required for many festivals and formal occasions. Some men wear cufflinks.

(4) Categorized according to price factors

Russian consumers are very sensitive to price factors. Price plays a large role in the purchasing decisions of Russians, but some people are more focused on high-quality products with brands. The main two reasons why Russian consumers shop through cross-border e-commerce are lower product prices and a wider range of product categories. Goods from China have the above two advantages.

(5) Categorized according to festival factors

During important traditional festivals in Russia such as New Year’s Day, Christmas, and Baptism, Russians will buy gifts for their family and friends. Businesses can offer suitable gifts for different festivals to meet their gift-giving needs.

****2. Consumer Habits of Russians****

According to a research report released by Yandex and GFK, compared with Chinese online stores, men prefer to buy goods from English websites (54%), while most women prefer to shop from Chinese websites (52%). This phenomenon may be related to the categories of goods purchased. Women purchase more clothing, accessories, children’s products, and household items. These low-priced goods are widely used in the Chinese market. Meanwhile, men often buy electronics and auto parts.

In addition, the core age group for cross-border online shopping is usually between 20-29 years old in Russia. This age group is also the most active, and they have a deep understanding of international payment methods. About 40% of respondents in this age group are accustomed to shopping on English websites. Russians have high loyalty to products and brands, especially elderly consumers, forming a relatively stable attitude and habitual behavior. Russian consumers attach great importance to product prices and pursue products with high cost performance, so the unit price of goods cannot be too high. During major promotions, the transaction volume between the US and China does not fluctuate significantly, but the transaction volume between Russia and China often increases by 10 times, indicating that Russian consumers value cost performance more. At the same time, Russians do not like product comparison charts. They do not need to know the before-and-after comparison of products. A realistic display of the product is the best promotion. Emotional images, such as crying children, should also be avoided.

Russians prefer to have more pictures on the page rather than text. It is recommended that sellers use more high-quality large images, which is also the trend of the current Internet as images can provide a more intuitive display.

Due to various reasons such as payment, logistics, and translation, the shopping experience for Russians when shopping across borders is a major concern. According to statistics from relevant agencies, buyers in major cities in Russia hope to receive their orders through express delivery, and they want the orders to be delivered as quickly as possible, while people in some rural areas have to choose to receive their orders through the post office. In addition, there are some cash-on-delivery payment methods in Russia. Data shows that five internet trading platforms have appeared in the list of the 25 major internet brands in Russia. They are Avito, AliExpress (SpeedSell), YandexMarket (Yandex. Market), Yula, and Ozon (Amazon). Among them, SpeedSell ranks ninth.

**** III. Frequency of Russian Online Shopping, Online Shopping Time, and Payment Methods ****

(I) Frequency of Russian Online Shopping

The Internet penetration rate in Russia is 48%, which is not high, but it is growing rapidly. The development of Russia’s e-commerce market has not been affected by this. Since the global economic recession, Russian users’ online shopping expenditures have increased by 12%, but the proportion of disposable income used for online shopping, which is 18%, is still lower than the global average of 23%. The proportion of those who have experienced online shopping fraud is 12%, slightly lower than the global average of 14%, but about three-quarters of consumers are concerned about the security of online shopping. The popularity of mobile devices in Russia is comparable to the global average, with a smartphone penetration rate of 50% (compared to the global average of 51%) and a tablet penetration rate of 17% (compared to the global average of 21%). However, mobile device shopping is not very popular in Russia, with only 13% of online shopping done through smartphones and 7% done through tablets. On the positive side, 57% of Russian respondents said they are willing to use smartphones or tablets for shopping in the next year. The situation of Russia’s online shopping market varies greatly between the east and west. Russia is a highly complex market that spans two continents, and there are significant differences in broadband penetration and computer literacy among different regions. The distribution of internet users in different regions can be seen in Figure 5-3.

Generally speaking, the central urban areas occupy the majority of the domestic e-commerce market in Russia, and the average market size in Moscow is about 10 times that of other regions. According to a report on foreign search interests by Russian users, China ranks fourth on the list, with a monthly search volume of 4.1 million times, accounting for 5% of the total relevant searches in the country. Among the various regions in Russia, residents in Siberia and the Far East have the strongest interest in China.

According to a report by Russian satellite network, Russians spend almost 1/10 of their online time on websites and applications for online transactions. 90% of the time is spent on applications, which is roughly 55 hours per month. Statistics show that the proportion of online shoppers in Russia is increasing. If in 2016, online shoppers accounted for 25% of the total number of Russian netizens aged between 16 and 55, then this number has increased to 30%, or 2.4 million people, as of 2017.

(II) Online shopping time for Russians

Globally, consumers spend more in the second half of the day, and 74% of global online shopping transactions occur between noon and midnight, with the majority (44%) happening in the evening. Therefore, the “golden time” for global online shopping is around 20:40 in the evening, and online retailers can launch promotional activities during this time, such as discounts, special sales, or exclusive sales (see Figure 5-5).

The proportion of female consumers who shop at night (52%) is higher than that of male consumers (46%). The most frequent night-time online shoppers are in St. Petersburg (58%) and the Northwestern Federal District (52%), and the percentage of online shoppers in Moscow and other Russian cities in the total number of online shoppers in Russia (2013).

Survey data shows that 59% of Russians enjoy shopping at night and consider themselves to be introverted. At the same time, users with hobbies, working at night, or needing to do housework tend to buy products online after 9 pm. Most respondents said that their reasons for shopping at night include: (1) no time during the day (59%); (2) no one disturbs them at night (16%); (3) shopping at night is more convenient (9%). In addition, 34% of Russians like to plan their shopping in advance, and 28% start selecting products during the day. Consumers most frequently buy clothing, shoes, and accessories (16%) as well as electronics and home appliances (15%) after 9 pm.

(3) Payment Methods

Consumers in different markets have different understandings of the use of electronic wallets. So what does an electronic wallet mean for Russian consumers? Anna Kovaleva, the head of external communication at the local Russian company Yandex.Money, said:

For Russian consumers, electronic wallets are already a secure enough payment method, so users are more concerned with using the services inside the electronic wallet rather than worrying about the security of their bank cards when using electronic wallets.

Unlike in China, in Russia, payment on applications does not require a jump to an electronic wallet. The payment method is embedded in the app through a basic link, so consumers can complete the payment without leaving the app.

In addition to various payment methods, there are many payment platforms and related companies in Russia, but there is no single company that can hold more than 50% of the market share and achieve an absolute monopoly. Previously, the MARC International Research Center compared 1.16 million Russian websites engaged in online shopping and online service payment. Its data for the fourth quarter of 2016 showed that Russian websites used approximately 100 payment platforms and gateways, with Yandex.Money having the highest market share at 29.6%, Robokassa ranking second at 10.3%, and Payeer ranking third at 4.6%.

Top 10 Payment Platforms Ranking on Russian Websites

Name Percentage (%)
Yandex Payment 29.6
Robokassa 10.3
Payeer 4.6
UnitPay 4.2
Wallet One 3.6
Interkassa 3.6
PayAnyWay 2.9
RBK Money 2.2
PayMaster 1.9
Plarron 1.8

****IV. Russian Festivals and Customs** **

One of the most distinctive features of a country’s culture is its festivals, and Russia is no exception.

(I) Traditional Festivals

1. Maslenitsa (Pancake Week)

Maslenitsa is the biggest traditional festival in Russia. It lasts for seven days, beginning on the eighth week before Easter. According to folk customs, each day has its own special activities. The first day is the Welcoming of Spring; the second day is Entertainment Day; the third day is Gourmet Day; the fourth day is Drunken Day; the fifth day is the Mother-in-law’s Party (the mother-in-law invites her new son-in-law to a feast); the sixth day is the Sister-in-law’s Day (unmarried girls visit the sisters of their fiancées); the seventh day is Forgiveness and Farewell to Winter Day (people visit each other and ask forgiveness for any wrongs they may have committed). Nowadays, Maslenitsa has become known as the “Russian Winter Carnival” or “Pancake Week”. The outdated and backward sacrificial rituals have disappeared, and people celebrate Maslenitsa in their own preferred ways, heralding the arrival of spring and the time for sowing. The festival is held at different times in different parts of Russia, usually on the last Sunday in February or the first and second Sundays in March. During the festival, there are colorful art performances and distinctive recreational activities, as well as huge costume parades. This is a massive carnival activity that people of all ages can participate in. They wear all kinds of masks and dress up in fancy costumes, some as kings, some as noblewomen, some as priests and warriors… After the parade, there is a prize for the best costume. In addition, people also enjoy riding on sleds pulled by three horses decorated with flower wreaths, ribbons, and bells, galloping across the vast white fields and enjoying the beauty of nature.

For this tradition, cross-border e-commerce practitioners can start with props such as wreaths, ribbons, bells, sleds, as well as masks and costumes used for carnival parades, and release clothing and prop products.

2 Spring Plowing Festival

The Spring Plowing Festival is usually held when the snow has melted and spring planting is about to begin each year. During the Spring Plowing Festival, ancient Russians are accustomed to eating plow-shaped and rake-shaped bread baked from black rye; on the first day of spring plowing, they wear clean clothes, bring bread, salt, and eggs to the field. After plowing three furrows, they take out bread and salt, eat some themselves, feed the rest to the cows, and then bury the eggs in the soil to worship the earth and pray for good weather and a bountiful harvest. Today, Russian farmers not only retain this ritual, but also add new content. On this day of the Spring Plowing Festival, villagers hold grand ceremonies to send off tractor drivers to the field. Village girls dress up as spring fairies and goddesses, and ride in colorful carriages at the front of the spring plowing team, followed by villagers in costume. Behind them are tractors and seeders, and the last is a car carrying a huge loaf of black rye bread, with two well-dressed girls standing guard. In the field, a woman with a golden crown and a brown robe dressed up as Mother Earth, accompanied by four young men, came to the front of the spring plowing team. After the spring fairies presented her with pure white snowball flowers, the girls presented the festival’s black rye bread. Mother Earth broke the bread and scattered it to the crowd. Then, the band played a majestic tune, and the best tractor driver plowed the first furrow, marking the official start of spring plowing.

On the day of Spring Plowing Festival, cross-border e-commerce practitioners can release some golden or brightly colored clothing products to cater to this custom.

3. Poetry Festival

June 6 is Russia’s Poetry Festival. This festival was established to commemorate Russia’s great poet Pushkin, because he was born on June 6, 1799. He is famous not only in Russia, but also all over the world. His famous works such as the epic poem “Eugene Onegin” and the novella “The Captain’s Daughter” are deeply loved by readers. Russians consider Pushkin as the founder of the national standard language. Since June 6, 1880, the Poetry Festival has also been called Pushkin Festival. On this day, the Pushkin Monument was erected in Pushkin Square, the first monument built by Russians for a poet. Russians generally celebrate Pushkin Festival in Moscow and St. Petersburg where Pushkin lived. People watch actors, scholars, and poets perform Pushkin’s works, and the topics discussed on this day are all related to the poet and his works. On the day of Poetry Festival, cross-border e-commerce practitioners can release some collections of Pushkin’s works or souvenirs related to Pushkin online to attract consumers.

4. Birch Tree Festival

June 24 is the Birch Tree Festival of Russians, originally called the Summer Festival. The protagonist of this festival is the white birch tree.

The white birch tree is a symbol of Russia, and can be called the “national tree” of Russia. On this day, people decorate every corner of their homes with white birch trees, and buy “birch twig brooms” for bathing as a festival souvenir. The shops also decorate their windows with patterns and signs made of white birch bark. People come to parks, squares, riversides, and forest clearings, sit on the grass or under the trees, drink beer and other beverages, sing, dance, play games, and continue to party until dawn the next day. For hardworking farmers who work all year round, enjoying themselves during the Birch Tree Festival can help eliminate fatigue so that they can devote themselves to the intense harvest season with full energy. For the distinctive Birch Tree Festival, cross-border e-commerce practitioners can release some products made of white birch bark on the platform to attract consumers to purchase.

5. New Year

In Russia, New Year is one of the most important holidays. When creating promotional pages and banner ads, it is important to focus on the keywords of warmth, ease, and calmness to create a warm atmosphere. Avoid being too aggressive. Unlike Santa Claus in the United States, the symbol of New Year in Russia is Father Frost and his granddaughter. The image of Santa Claus in Europe and America is not accepted in Russia. Russian people prefer their own Father Frost and his granddaughter. Therefore, products sold to Russia should be different from the typical clothing and decorations of Christmas in Europe and America. Instead, prepare Russian-themed costumes for dances, stage props, and decorations made of fir trees.

6. Women’s Day

On International Women’s Day, Russian women do not want to receive kitchen-related gifts. They prefer to receive gifts such as flowers, chocolates, and decorations. Russian women want to become the gentlest woman on this day, not receive a brand new rice cooker and be encouraged to continue doing housework. The best color for page decoration is a light and warm color scheme, such as pink or orange. Although the number 8 can be used, the number of flowers should be checked carefully because even numbers of flowers are only used by the Russian people when attending funerals.

7. National Day

Defender of the Fatherland Day, also known as National Day in Russia, is also known as Men’s Day. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and other countries are very fond of this holiday. Therefore, it is best for website designers to place the date on the page and banner ads on this day. If the images you put up have tanks or other military weapons, but you don’t know which country it is from, it is best to do some research first. Russian people are very familiar with weapons and military uniforms, so do not put up pictures of weapons from other countries. They are very opposed to this. The choice of models should also be cautious. It is best to use strong and military-style images, with a mustache, to show a fatherly love. Gentle and feminine models should be avoided.

8. Valentine’s Day

Valentine’s Day in Russia is not much different from most countries in the world. The main thing to note is that one should avoid using blue and instead use warm and bright colors. This day can be fully expressed with the Valentine’s Day atmosphere using bright red. Popular gifts for women on Valentine’s Day include fashionable products, cosmetics, perfume, and underwear. Gifts for men include stylish accessories, razors, and perfume.

(2) Main taboos

In order to fully understand the needs of consumers, we should not only understand the customs of the target country’s festivals, but also pay attention to avoiding their taboos when communicating with consumers and developing new products.

General taboos

1. Avoid yellow. Russians consider yellow to be an unlucky color, so it is generally taboo to give yellow things as gifts, and pure yellow clothing is also taboo.

2. Avoid getting married in May. Russians generally avoid getting married in May, believing that marriages during this month are full of suffering and are very unsuccessful.

3. Avoid looking in the mirror while eating. You can’t look in the mirror while eating, and you can’t wear a hat at the table, which is considered unlucky.

4. Avoid giving candles. Russians usually consider candles to be ominous things that can bring death, so giving them to others is like cursing them to die early.

5. Avoid imitating the call of an owl, which is a sign of the threat of death for a person.

Taboos in communication

1. Avoid shaking hands with crossed arms.

2. Avoid commenting on women’s appearance.

3. Avoid asking women about their age.

4. Avoid excessive praise.

5. Avoid complimenting someone’s health.

6. Avoid talking and shaking hands across the threshold.

7. Avoid lighting three cigarettes with one match.

8. Avoid wishing someone a happy birthday in advance.

9. Avoid pointing at someone with your finger.

10. Avoid being an “uninvited guest”.

Numerical taboos

1. Avoid the number “13”.

2. Avoid Friday.

3. Avoid even numbers. They should be avoided in particular. During this period, the best decorative color for the promotional page is military green.

Taboos in daily life

1. Avoid yellow.

2. Avoid sitting at the corner of the table while eating.

3. Avoid seeing rabbits or black cats crossing the road horizontally.

4. Avoid getting out of bed with your left foot first.

5. Avoid touching things that have been touched by dead people.

6. Avoid getting married on a rainy day.

7. Avoid cleaning the room when a family member is away.

8. Avoid spilling salt.

9. Avoid putting the bottom of bread upside down.

10. Avoid leaving leftover staple food in the plate for bone soup.

11. Avoid using a knife to send food into the mouth.

12. Avoid whistling in the house.

13. Avoid wearing clothes sewn or buttoned by someone else.

14. Avoid women not wearing headscarves in church.

15. Avoid thread knots when sewing clothes.

16. Avoid wearing clothes reversed.

17. Avoid getting a haircut before an exam.

Taboos when giving gifts

1. Avoid giving knives, forks, or other sharp or toothed items.

2. Avoid giving handkerchiefs.

3. Avoid giving candles.

4. Avoid giving wildflowers.

5. Avoid giving yellow flowers or flowers with three or more colors mixed together.

6. Avoid giving live cats.

7. Avoid giving empty wallets.

Taboos of Russians

****V. Russian specialties** **

Russia has many specialties, and vodka and matryoshka dolls are well-known national features.

1. Vodka

Vodka is known as the “national drink” of Russia. Because the winter in Russia is long and cold, local people drink vodka to keep warm. Over time, more and more Russians have become accustomed to drinking vodka at the dining table, and this kind of drink is very popular among local people. Cross-border e-commerce platforms cannot sell alcoholic products, but launching some unique, stylish products such as cups that can hold vodka, containers that are easy to carry liquor, or bottle openers is a viable option.

2. Russian Matryoshka Dolls

In addition to vodka, another famous Russian specialty is the matryoshka doll. This hollow wooden doll, mostly decorated with images of girls wearing traditional Russian clothing, fits one inside the other and is very cute. The matryoshka doll, also known as “Matrioshka,” is a major feature of Russian national culture, and many Russian children have a lovely set of them. Tourists who come to Russia can buy some to give to children, and they will surely love them. In addition, Russian tin handicrafts, amber products, crystal, linen handicrafts, lacquer boxes, etc. are also famous specialties. As a popular feature of the local culture, matryoshka dolls have high sales every year in Russia. However, we are not suitable for selling dolls on the platform. Nevertheless, general travelers in Russia buy matryoshka dolls for collection or as gifts for relatives and friends, therefore, cross-border e-commerce practitioners can appropriately sell some packaging gift boxes and decorations for matryoshka dolls.

【Promotion Application】

From the above content, we can see that Russia not only has rich and colorful ethnic customs and traditional culture, but also has a particularly high demand for overseas goods, especially in clothing, shoes, accessories, beauty products, etc. Moreover, they like products with high cost performance, so we can adjust product prices appropriately to meet customer needs. Customers of different age groups have different consumption needs for products, and we need to formulate different policies to meet the needs of consumers of different age groups. According to Russian customs, cross-border e-commerce practitioners can set some discount days, such as the Russian version of “Double 11” shopping festival. Of course, the most important point is not to offend their taboos. To successfully complete transactions, we should cater to consumer preferences and avoid consumer taboos.

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